how many noun cases in english

1. Subjective case: pronouns used as subject.
2. Objective case: pronouns used as objects of verbs or prepositions.
3. Possessive case: pronouns which express ownership.
The pronoun cases are simple though. There are only three:-

how many noun cases in english, Language Skills Abroad
In sentence 2, the noun boy is the subject. It is the answer to the question ‘Who killed the spider’. The noun spider is the object. It is the answer to the question ‘Whom/what did the boy kill?’
Examine the following sentences.

how many noun cases in english, Language Skills Abroad
“she/her” — “she” is nominative case, “her” is object case AND ALSO is possessive case
possessive case (shown with the “apostrophe-s” or “s-apostrophe” endings)

how many noun cases in english, Language Skills Abroad
Modern English has three cases:
Nominative/Subjective Case
When a noun is used as a) the subject of a verb or b) the complement of a being verb, it is said to be in the subjective or nominative case.

• The book is on the table.
“Table” is in objective case.
It is object of the preposition ‘on’.
Only other variations of these seven pronouns are there.

how many noun cases in english, Language Skills Abroad
Example:
Cases indicate the grammatical functions of nouns and pronouns according to their relation with rest of the words in a sentence.

how many noun cases in english, Language Skills Abroad
You is the only personal pronoun used to address someone, which corresponds to the VOCATIVE case. What makes this unique is that it is sometimes “understood” (or replaced by a ‘null’ pronoun). In imperative sentences, for example, you often wouldn’t say or write ‘You’, although the meaning is still there.
INSTRUMENTAL – prepositions of function, such as by, with, via, and through

He paints with a brush . — Він малює пензликом .
or to show something to somebody, or to tell somebody something, or to explain, to present etc.:

Readers of Latin distinguish the direct object from the indirect object. The indirect object is the person or thing indirectly affected by the action of the verb. Consider a variation on the last sentence above: “I gave him the book.” (Or, the same thing: “I gave the book to him.”) “The book” is still the direct object (directly affected by the “giving”), but we have added a person indirectly affected by the giving: “him.” “Him” is the indirect object. In this case, it is the beneficiary of the giving. Suppose on the other hand, the person indirectly affected was hurt by the action: “I gave him the finger.” Here we have the indirect object used to describe the person disadvantaged by the giving. In Latin, the indirect object is always put into the dative case, but the Latin Dative Case has greater flexibility and more functions than the indirect object function in English.
As in Latin, so in English “case” refers to a change in the form of a word which indicates how that word is used in a sentence, that is, how it relates syntactically to other words in the sentence. In English, the only words that are marked formally are pronouns and the “declension” of pronouns shows three cases: The subject case, the object case, and the possessive case. Examples: “I, me, my/mine” and “he, him, his.” Other words distinguish their syntactic usage within a sentence by their word position. Examples: “Man bites Dog” and “Henry gave Sam Mary.”

Having “that” and “great” in the nominative as well as “king” is an example of case agreement among adjectives, pronouns and nouns.
Genitives can be singular (as above) or plural:

Resources:

http://www.englishgrammar.org/noun-case/
http://www.quora.com/How-many-grammatical-cases-are-there-in-the-English-language
http://www.dailywritingtips.com/grammatical-case-in-english/
http://www.english-for-students.com/Noun-Cases.html
http://www.learngrammar.net/english-grammar/case
http://www.insightstoenglish.com/tips-insights/noun-cases
http://ukrainiangrammar.com/article/2011-01-23/the-noun-cases.html
http://classics.osu.edu/Undergraduate-Studies/Latin-Program/Grammar/Cases/English-Case
http://people.umass.edu/sharris/in/gram/GrammarBook/GramCases.html
http://allpoetry.com/The-Rose-That-Grew-From-Concrete