velar to velar 3 syllable words
1-syllable bilabial-velar words (e.g. bug, milk, park)
3-syllable bilabial-velar words (e.g. pickle jar, magazine, pumpkin pie)
- Glottal consonants ([h] or [?]) do not occur at ends of syllables.
- Velar nasals ([N]) do not occur at the beginning of syllables.
- Diphthongs only occur in the first syllable of a stem.
- Stems always end in a consonant.
The timing rule applies to all stems, mono- and polysyllabic.
Number and type of sessions received by each participant
4 Syracuse University, USA
The Apraxia Picture Sound Cards app provides you with convenience, organization, and session-by-session data collection. You are able to track and store a child’s session-by-session data allowing parents to easily see their child’s measurable progress. Session data can be stored and easily retrieved. You can manage multiple children, store and view session reports, and email session results with ease.
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taˆu taˆuhan tawˆan
tiˆis tiˆisan tisˆan
wayaˆ mawayaˆan mawadˆan
ˆabat — ˆabtun
B. Noun forms with -an (variant -anan) or -un (variant -anun) plus vowel length
Commonly there are two forms, one with either -an or -un and the other with vowel loss and either -anan or -anun with no contrast in meaning. No vowel loss with the variants -anan or -anun has been found with vowel sequences a-i, u-i, and i-a.
Root Vowel of ultima retained Vowel of ultima lost
bakay — balakyãnun
bunit bunÿtan —
huyaˆ — kahuyãnan
laba labãhan —
salaˆ — kasalˆãnan
sugut — ginakasugtãnan
takus takýsan —
tanum tanýman —
tapa tapãhan —
taˆu — tyawˆãnan
ˆabit ˆabÿtan —
ˆinum ˆinýmun ˆilimnãnun
188.8.131.52 Word patterns CVCCV and CVCCVC
Words with this pattern have no variants involving vowel loss. The vowel of the ultima is never lost (a cluster of three consonants does not occur). Nouns (as in sec. 2.1.1) are indicated by the addition of length on the vowel of the root or stem ultima. Variant affixes -anan and -anun do not occur.
Root Suffixed verb form Suffixed noun form
badbad badbarun badbãrun
bagyu bagyuhun bagyýhun
bantay bantayan bantãyan
dapyas dapyasan dapyãsan
dubli dublihun dublÿhun
gabˆi gabˆihan —
ganˆut ganˆutun ganˆýtun
gastu gastuhun gastýhan
hustu hustuhun hustýhun
kabkab kabkaban kabkãban
kanta kantahan kantãhan
libri librihun librÿhun
panday pandayan pandãyan
parti partihan partÿhan
sambat sambatun sambãtun
ˆagbay ˆagbayun ˆagbãyun
184.108.40.206 Word pattern (CV)C-ÐCV1 1
There are two features involved with this pattern:
1) When a given root is involved with both verb and noun forms, there is no loss of the ultima vowel. 2) In verb constructions without vowel loss, length shifts one syllable to the right. Noun constructions occur without length. It is to be noted, therefore, that with roots that have no length (see secs. 220.127.116.11 and 18.104.22.168) the noun form is indicated by the addition of length, and with roots with length (this section) the noun form is indicated by a loss of length.
She goes for long walks.
She uses a bookmark to keep her page.
Why would /d/ remain a stop following /l/ while /b/ and /g/ become approximants? Recall that the behavior or /d/ following /l/ made sense because the tongue makes contact with the teeth for /l/ as it does for the dental stop [d̪]. But the articulator for [b] is the lips and for [g] the back of the tongue (making contact with the velar region of the roof of the mouth). Since neither of these gaps is closed during the production of /l/, leaving them open for a following /b/ or /g/ would represent the same sort of perseverative assimilation we see when these consonants follow vowels.
If the first stop in at the top is really an example of the phoneme /t/, we need an account for why this stop isn’t produced in the prototypical way in this word. In this case the speaker anticipates the place of articulation (dental) of the following fricative. For English /t/ this appears to be quite general. That is, if we examine a lot of English words, looking for voiceless alveolar stops, we’ll see that, in unaffected speech anyway, they don’t occur right before dental fricatives. Instead they’re replaced in that context by voiceless dental stops. The generalization holds not only for cases where the fricative following the /t/ comes in a separate word, as in at the top , but also when both phones are in the same word. One example is in the word eighth . Note that in this case the /t/ is not reflected in the spelling, but it is there, at least in my accent. Another example is the /t/ in width (spelled “d”).